Why marine spatial planning?
Demand for outputs (goods and services such as food and energy) usually exceeds the capacity of marine areas to meet all of the demands simultaneously. Marine resources are “common property resources” with open or free access to users. Free access often, if not always, leads to excessive use of marine resources, e.g., over-fishing, and eventual exhaustion of the resources.
Because not all of the outputs from marine areas, especially ecosystem services such as wildlife habitat and nutrient cycling, can be expressed in monetary terms, markets cannot perform the allocation tasks. Some public process must be used to decide what mix of outputs from the marine area will be produced over time and space. That process is marine spatial planning.
Defining marine spatial planning
Marine spatial planning is a public process of analyzing and allocating the spatial and temporal distribution of human activities in marine areas to achieve ecological, economic, and social objectives that usually have been specified through a political process. Characteristics of marine spatial planning include ecosystem-based, area-based, integrated, adaptive, strategic and participatory.
Marine spatial planning is not an end in itself, but a practical way to create and establish a more rational use of marine space and the interactions among its uses, to balance demands for development with the need to protect the environment, and to deliver social and economic outcomes in an open and planned way.
What is marine spatial planning NOT?
Marine spatial planning is not a substitute for single-sector planning and management
. Strategic and operational plans for fisheries, transportation, energy, recreation, and conservation, for example, will continue even when integrated MSP is put into practice. Integrated MSP can provide a guide to single-sector management that should increase compatibilities and reduce conflicts across sectors, balance development and conservation interests, increase management effectiveness and efficiency, and address the cumulative effects of multiple human uses of the same marine space.
Marine spatial planning is not a one-time plan. The context for planning is constantly changing. Science contributes new knowledge. Monitoring and evaluation adds new information about the effectiveness, efficiency, and equity of alternative management actions. Technology improves. Social, economic, and political conditions change over time. Plans should be updated periodically to reflect these changing conditions.
Marine spatial planning is not only conservation planning
. While a network of marine protected areas might be one outcome of MSP, it seeks to balance economic development and environmental conservation, and not focus on only on the goals of conservation or protection.
Marine spatial planning is not ocean zoning. Marine space has been zoned for individual human uses for decades, if not longer. Fisheries have been opened or closed in particular areas or zones. Marine transportation has been managed within designated lanes or zones especially in intensively-used areas. Rights to explore or exploit energy or mineral resources have been leased on an area basis. Marine protected areas have been designated in many places in the world. However, these zones and others have usually been planned on a single-sector basis without integrated planning.
What are the outputs of marine spatial planning?
The marine spatial planning process should result in a spatial vision and a comprehensive management plan for a marine area. Marine spatial planning is one element of ocean or sea use management; zoning plans and regulations are one of a set of management actions for implementing marine spatial planning. Zoning plans can then guide the granting or denial of individual permits for the use of marine space.
Why marine spatial 'management' and not only 'planning'?
Planning is only one element of the marine spatial management process. This process includes additional elements of implementation, enforcement, monitoring, evaluation, research, public participation, and financing—all of which must be present to carry out effective management over time.